112 MARINE CORPS OPERATIONS FUNDAMENTALS TEST
1. What are the primary functions and missions to following Aviation Platforms?
a. AH-1W Cobra – attack helicopter/ Fire support and security for forward and rear area forces.
b. CH-46E Sea Knight – Medium lift assault support helicopter/Provide all-weather, day/night, night NVG assault transport of combat troops, supplies, and equipment during amphibious operations.
c. CH-53D Sea Stallion- Transportation of equipment &supplies during ship to shore movement/ Transport of equipment, supplies , personnel during amphibious operations.
d. CH-53E Super Sea Stallion – Transport of heavy equipment and supplies during ship to shore movement/Transport of equipment and supplies.
e. UH-1N Huey- utility helicopter/ Airborne command and control, combat assault, medical evacuation, maritime special operations, supporting arms control and coordination, fire support and security for forward and rear forces.
f. MV-22B Osprey-Amphibious assault transport of troops, equipment and supplies from ships and land bases/Marine Corps Assault Support.
g. EA-6B Prowler- Airborne electronic warfare, (Electronic attack, tactical electronic support, electronic protection and high speed anti-radiation missile/ collect tactical electronic order of Battle (EOB) data, to provide updates to various orders of battle.
h. AV-8B Harrier ll- attack & destroy surface targets under day & night visual conditions/ attack & destroy surface and air targets, to escort helicopters.
i. KC130F/R/T Hercules – in-flight refueling & tactical transport/ multi-mission tactical tanker/transport to provide support to MAGTF.
j. F-18A/B/C Hornet –intercept & destroy enemy aircraft under all-weather conditions, & attack & destroy surface targets/ destroy enemy aircraft, conduct day/night close air support, conduct escort of friendly aircraft.
k. F-18D Hornet –Attack & destroy surface targets, day or night. Conduct multi-sensor imagery reconnaissance, supporting arms coordination/conduct deep air support of armed recon, radar search & attack, interdiction, and strikes against enemy installations.
2. What are the primary missions of the following ships?
a. LHA- Land & sustain Marines on any shore during hostilities.
b. LHD- Largest amphibious ship in the world, it is and improvement follow-on to the five ship LHAs, sharing the basic hull and engineering plant.
c. LPD-combines the functions of 3 different classes of ships; land ship, tank landing ship, attack cargo ship. Transport and land marines, their equipment and supplies.
d. LSD- Dock, transport and launch Navy’s landing craft, air cushion vessels and other amphibious crafts.
e. LCAC- Transport weapons systems, equipment, cargo and personnel of MAGTF from ship to shore and across beach.
f. T-AH (sealift)- provide emergency, onsite care for US combatant forces deployed in war or other operations.
g. T-AK (sealift)- carries full range of USMC cargo, enough to support MAGTF for 30 days.
3. In your own words, what is the difference between War and Military Operations other than War (MOOTW)? The difference is war is a large scales, sustained combat operation to achieve national objectives or protect national interest, placing the US in wartime state. MOOTW is focus on deterring war, resolving conflict, promoting peace, and supporting civil authorities in response to domestic crises.
4. In your own words, explain the following types of WOOTW and give examples of each.
a. Arms control – any plan resting upon explicit or implicit international agreement. (Conventional Armed Forces In Europe Treat) or (Vienne Document)
b. Combating Terrorism – actions taken to oppose terrorism from wherever the threat. ( Foreign Assistance Act of 1961)
c. Enforcement of sanctions/maritime interception operations- Operations which employ coercive measures to interdict the movement of certain types of items in or out of a nation or area. (Operation Support Democracy)
d. Enforcing exclusion zones-established be sanctioning body to prohibit specified activities in specific area. (Operation Southern Watch) or (Operation Deny flight.)
e. Ensuring freedom of navigation and overflight –Conducted to demonstrate US or international rights to navigate sea or air routes. (Berlin air Corridors) or (The Attain Document Series)
f. Humanitarian assistance- relieves or reduces the results of natural or manmade disasters of endemic conditions. (Operations Sea Angel l or ll )
g. Military support to civil authorities- Operations that provide temporary support to domestic civil authorities when permitted by law. (Hurricane Andrew or Iniki In Hawaii)
h. Nation assistance/support to counterinsurgency – civil or military assistance other than HA to a nation by US forces during peacetime or crises . (Refer to Book pg. 129 any example allowed).
i. Noncombatant evacuation operations- Relocate threatened noncombatants from a foreign country. (Eastern Exit or Quick Lift)
j. Peace operations – military operations to support diplomatic efforts to reach a long termed political settlement. (Operation Able Sentry )
k. Protection of shipping –Provide protection to US flag vessels, US citizens, and property against unlawful violence. (Operation Earnest Will)
l. Recovery operations- conducted to search, locate, identify, rescue and personnel of human remains, sensitive equipment or items critical to national security. (Operation Full Accounting)
m. Show of force – designed to demonstrate US resolve in involved increased to visibility of US forces to attempt to defuse a specific situation that may be detriment to US national objectives. (Operation JTF- Philippines)
n. Strikes and raids- Strikes are conducted to inflict damage, seize, or destroy objectives. Raids are small-scale operations involving swift penetration of hostile territory, or enemy installations. ( Operation Urgent Fury or Operation El Dorado Canyon).
5. Define Military Operations on Urbanized Terrain (MOUT), and what is the Marine Corps role in urban warfare. MOUT is military operations in a city atmosphere. As the nations force in readiness, forward deployed with expeditionary forces, marines must be prepared to fight in on urbanized terrain.
6. Explain the following examples of MOUT.
a. Stalingrad (1942-1943)- Soviet defense of Stalingrad set up conditions for a decisive counteroffensive. Resulted in innovative urban combat techniques and the creation of highly successful storm groups. Battles greater than 30 days, and 1,630, 000+ casualties
b. Berlin (1945)- Soviet offensive to seize the German capital city it was the last battle of WWll in Europe. Battle lasted 14-30 days casualties estimated in thousands.
c. Seoul (1950)- US and Republic of Korea forces recaptured the S. Korean capital for N. Koreans. Combat was largely centered on seizure of street barricades instead of buildings. Battle lasted 6-13 days 2,383 marine casualties others reported in the thousands.
d. Quang Tri l and ll (1972)- N. Vietnamese 1972 winter-spring offensive was the capture of Quang Tri. Quang Tri l and ll were major urban battles of Vietnam War. Quang tri l lasted 6-13 day, Quang tri ll lasted 30 days or greater. Casualties combined 30,000+.
e. Beirut ll (1982)- The siege of Beirut ended the Israeli campaign to evict the Palestine liberation organization from Lebanon. Battle lasted greater than 30 days and resulted in 2,300 + casualties.
7. Explain the Noncombatants impact in urban warfare. Large population of civilians can impede mobility, firepower, security, obstacle employment.
8. Explain the principles of Operational Maneuver From the Sea (OMFTS).
· Focuses on an operational objective
· Uses sea as maneuver space
· Generates tempo and momentum
· Pits strength against weakness
· Emphasizes intelligence, deceptions, and flexibility
· Integrates all organic, joint, and combines assets.